Sunday, October 19, 2008


this is the final speech write up that I include in my report BEL 492...

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages, being appreciated by millions of people all around the world. Coffee is a widely-consumed stimulant beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and dried. The seeds are then roasted, undergoing several physical and chemical changes. They are roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then ground and brewed to create coffee. Then, coffee can be prepared and presented by a variety of methods.

Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout modern history. Coffee is an important export commodity. In 2004, coffee was the top agricultural export for 12 countries, and in 2005, it was the world's seventh largest legal agricultural export by value. Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed.

6.2 BODY
6.2.1 The history of coffee
History and development of the beverage that we know as coffee is varied and interesting, involving chance occurrences, political intrigue, and the pursuit of wealth and power. Coffee was first consumed in the 9th century, when it was discovered in the highlands of Ethiopia. From there, it spread to Egypt and Yemen, and by the 15th century had reached Armenia, Persia, Turkey, and northern Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe and the Americas.

According to one story, the effect of coffee beans on behavior was noticed by a sheep herder from Caffa Ethiopia named Kaldi as he tended his sheep. He noticed that the sheep became hyperactive after eating the red "cherries" from a certain plant when they changed pastures. He tried a few himself, and was soon as overactive as his herd. The story relates that a monk happened by and scolded him for "partaking of the devil's fruit." However the monks soon discovered that this fruit from the shiny green plant could help them stay awake for their prayers.

Another legend gives us the name for coffee or "mocha." An Arabian was banished to the desert with his followers to die of starvation. In desperation, Omar had his friends boil and eat the fruit from an unknown plant. Not only did the broth save the exiles, but their survival was taken as a religious sign by the residents of the nearest town, Mocha. The plant and its beverage were named Mocha to honor this event.

6.2.2 The types of coffee.
Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown species are Coffea canephora (also known as Coffea robusta) and Coffea arabica. These are cultivated in Latin America, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Arabica coffee is considered more suitable for drinking than robusta coffee; robusta tends to be bitter and have fewer flavors than arabica.

Robusta coffee also contains about 40–50 percent more caffeine than arabica. For this reason, it is used as an inexpensive substitute for arabica in many commercial coffee blends. Good quality robusta are used in some espresso blends to provide a better foam head and to lower the ingredient cost. Other cultivated species include Coffea liberica and Coffea esliaca, believed to be indigenous to Liberia and southern Sudan, respectively.

Most arabica coffee beans originate from either Latin America, eastern Africa, Arabia, or Asia. Robusta coffee beans are grown in western and central Africa, throughout Southeast Asia, and to some extent in Brazil. Beans from different countries or regions usually have distinctive characteristics such as flavor, aroma, body, and acidity. These taste characteristics are dependent not only on the coffee's growing region, but also on genetic subspecies (varietals) and processing. Varietals are generally known by the region in which they are grown, such as Colombian, Java, or Kona.

6.2.3 Variety methods to present and prepared the coffee.
Coffee beans must be ground and brewed in order to create a beverage. Coffee may be brewed by several methods: boiled, stepped, or pressured. Once brewed, coffee may be presented in a variety of ways. Coffee-Roasting Styles
French and Italian Roasts: Dark, heavy-roasted beans that are almost black in color and produce a strongly flavored coffee.
American Roast: This is a medium-roasted coffee. It produces a coffee that is neither characteristically light nor heavy.
European Roast: Two-thirds heavy-roasted beans combined with one-third medium-roasted beans.
Viennese Roast: One-third heavy-roasted beans combined with two-thirds medium-roasted beans.

French-pressed coffee may be served with no additives. When served cold, it is called iced coffee. The Americano should be served with the espresso shots on top of the hot water to preserve the crema. Café latte will be added with steamed milk. Cappuccino is prepared by equal parts of espresso and milk froth. If want to creates a café macchiato is by a dollop of hot and foamed milk on top.

Coffee also can prepared and present in term of Instant coffee is dried into soluble powder or freeze dried into granules that can be quickly dissolved in hot water. Canned coffee has been popular in Asian countries for many years, particularly in Japan and South Korea. Vending machines typically sell varieties of flavored canned coffee, much like brewed or percolated coffee, available both hot and cold. Japanese convenience stores and groceries also have a wide availability of bottled coffee drinks, which are typically lightly sweetened and pre-blended with milk. Bottled coffee drinks are also consumed in the United States. Liquid coffee concentrates are sometimes used in large institutional situations where coffee needs to be produced for thousands of people at the same time.

6.2.4 The effects of consuming coffee in human daily life.
The effects of consuming can be either positive or negative effect. Coffee’s negative health effects are mostly due to its caffeine content. The effects of drinking caffeinated coffee can cause a temporary increase in the stiffening of arterial walls. Excess coffee consumption may lead to magnesium deficiency or hypomagnesaemia, and may be a risk of factor for coronary heart disease. Some studies state that it may have a mixed effect on short-term memory, by improving it when the information to be recalled is related to the current train of thought, but making it more difficult to recall unrelated information. It also can give an effect of miscarriage to pregnant women.

People who drink many cups of coffee every day appear to be at a higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis. Those who drank four or more cups of coffee a day had twice the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, compared with people who drank less coffee. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease in which the body's defenses attack its own tissues.

Coffee when consumed in excess can be addictive, stimulate, and a mood charger. A large amount of coffee or caffeine consumed all at once can have a negative affect on blood sugar levels that influences fat burning that could change into storing fat. Too much coffee over time can stain your teeth. Caffeine consumption can cause more damage from heart palpitations and increased heart rate. On men, it has been studied that caffeine reduces rates of sperm motility which may account for some findings of reduced fertility

The uses of coffee in human daily life are becoming wider as it is the most popular beverage and food all around the world. If we consumed the coffee in the appropriate amount, it will give us many kinds of benefits. But, it will lead to negative impact if we consumed in excess. There are many advantages in consuming coffee in moderate which are, coffee also can keeps our brains alert and receptive of new information, coffee appears to reduce the risk of Parkinson’s disease, the antioxidants in coffee prevent free radicals from causing cell damage and he negative effects of consuming coffee appears when we used it in excess.

Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed. So, we need to know how to control the uses of coffee in daily life.